Jaguar Cars Limited (Jaguar) is a British high end automobile brand founded as Swallow Sidecar & Coach Building Company in 1922. The first car was built on the chassis of the Austin Seven in 1927. A larger car was built on the chassis of the Fiat Tipo 509A in 1929. The SS with a low body and very long hood, was built on a purpose built chassis by Standard. An engineering department was set up in 1934. The name Jaguar was first used on the SS Jaguar 100 in 1935.
The company name was changed to Jaguar in 1945 and the 3.4 liter XK engine with twin overhead camshafts was introduced in the Jaguar XK120, a two seater sports car, in 1948. 120 was the top speed in miles for the XK120 (actually 126 mph), making it the worlds fastest production car. The Jaguar XK120C; C-type, won 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1951 and placed first, second and fourth in 1953. The Jaguar D-type placed second in 1954, first in 1955, first in 1956 and first, second, third, fourth and sixth in 1957. The Jaguar Mk1 with its unibody construction, where the frame and the body was constructed as a single unit, was introduced in 1955 and the Mark II in 1959.
The Jaguar E-type or XK-E was introduced in 1961, the XJ6 in 1968, the XJ12 with its V12 engine in 1972 and the XJ-S in 1975. American Ford Motor Company acquired Jaguar in 1990. Ford sold Jaguar to Indian Tata Motors in 2008.